Gas Chromatography

Chromatography is the name of a process used to separate chemical substances that depends on different partitioning occurences between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for separating elements in a mix.

The sample is shipped by a stream of moving gas through a tube that is filled with evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most important techniques in chemistry because of its ease, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most often employed to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to determine certain thermochemical constants.

Gas chromatography is additionally widely used in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, to demonstrate, gas streams that are frequently analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to counteract undesirable differences.

There are a number of routine analyses that are achieved quickly in environmental and related fields. For example, there are a plethora of countries with certain monitor points that serve the purpose of continuously calculating emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. In addition, gas chromatography can be utilized in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography launches with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, most often a gas that serves as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples in liquid form are first vaporized prior to being injected into the stream of carrier gases. Next, the gas stream moves through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are based on the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those components that have a more prominent interaction with the stationary phase are restricted more and thus separate from those with a less prominent interaction. As these components begin to be washed out of the column with a solvent, they can be counted by a detector and/or collected for more analysis.

There are two main types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is dependent on the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes takes place as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is typically utilized when separating ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it makes contact with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that are different based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These differences give the mixture components the ability to divide from each other when they use these difference to modify their moving times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When choosing a carrier gas, the selection depends on the sort of detector being used and the components that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be of the highest purity and chemically inert towards the sample. To successfully get rid of water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prominent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples are able to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is first injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then transferred to the column. When packed columns are used, the first section of the column is usually used as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small componentvof the vaporized sample is moved to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is known as split-injection. This technique is utilized when hoping to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A technique known as on-column injection can be employed for capillary gas chromatography when trace amounts could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe directly into the column. Next, the solvent can evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is created by a technique referred to as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and divided from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

Finally, there is also a method called loop-injection, and it is commonly used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow continuously through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. Afterwards, the sample is transported from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes having a concentration step.

Whether you’re in search of specialty gases to be utilized in gas chromatography, or any other industry that employs specialty gases, PurityPlus has a multitude of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to provide assistance in any areas you may need. For additional information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at 605-336-1125.